The JDBC ( Java Database Connectivity) API defines interfaces and classes for writing database applications in Java by making database connections. Using JDBC you can send SQL, PL/SQL statements to almost any relational database. JDBC is a Java API for executing SQL statements and supports basic SQL functionality. It provides RDBMS access by allowing you to embed SQL inside Java code. Because Java can run on a thin client, applets embedded in Web pages can contain downloadable JDBC code to enable remote database access


Java Database Connectivity Steps

1. Loading a database driver

In this step of the jdbc connection process, we load the driver class by calling Class.forName() with the Driver class name as an argument. Once loaded, the Driver class creates an instance of itself. A client can connect to Database Server through JDBC Driver. Since most of the Database servers support ODBC driver therefore JDBC-ODBC Bridge driver is commonly used.
The return type of the Class.forName (String ClassName) method is “Class”. Class is a class in
java.lang package.

2. Creating a oracle jdbc Connection

A jdbc Connection represents a session/connection with a specific database. Within the context of a Connection, SQL, PL/SQL statements are executed and results are returned. An application can have one or more connections with a single database, or it can have many connections with different databases. A Connection object provides metadata i.e. information about the database, tables, and fields. It also contains methods to deal with transactions.

3. Creating a jdbc Statement object

Once a connection is obtained we can interact with the database. Connection interface defines methods for interacting with the database via the established connection. To execute SQL statements, you need to instantiate a Statement object from your connection object by using the createStatement() method.

Statement: Execute simple sql queries without parameters.
Statement createStatement()
Creates an SQL Statement object.

Prepared Statement: Execute precompiled sql queries with or without parameters.
PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql)
returns a new PreparedStatement object. PreparedStatement objects are precompiled
SQL statements.

Callable Statement: Execute a call to a database stored procedure.
CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql)
returns a new CallableStatement object. CallableStatement objects are SQL stored procedure call statements.

Test JDBC Driver Installation

Java JDBC Connection Example, JDBC Driver Example